We believe that quality work begins at the base. In our history which began in 1979, we have been providing geotechnical engineering services such as geotechnical consultancy, geotechnical and geo-environmental site investigation and geotechnical instrumentation.

Damasco Penna

14/05/2019(Português do Brasil) Ensaios CPTU – Bibliografia recomendada

Geotechnical Field Services



CPT-u (Cone Penetration Testing) is an in-situ test used to obtain data on several soil aspects. Well known worldwide as one of the most traditional and precise geotechnical investigation tool, it enables determining foundation dimensions and estimating settlement rates, among other operations.

While the cone is being driven down, its sensors make three readings at each centimeter:

  • Tip resistance (qc)
  • Sleeve friction (fs) (fs)
  • Pore pressure (u2))

The information is transmitted to the surface in real time and processed by computer.

Excess pore water pressure are read by means of a porous element situated at the base of the cone and saturated with silicone oil by vacuum pump. When needed, it is also possible to perform pore pressure dissipation testing during the test.

In addition to the data read in real time during the test (qc, fs and u2), the following properties can also be obtained through correlations:

  • Stratigraphy;
  • Geotechnical profile (Soil behavior);
  • Consolidation coefficient (Ch and Cv);
  • Relative density (Dr);
  • Undrained shear strenght (Su);
  • Effective friction angle of sands (Ø);
  • Stress history (preconsolidation stress, OCR);
  • Permeability coefficient (K).

Piezocone equipment

Saturation vacuum pump


See also posts about Piezocone Tests:
Dissipation Tests
Nearshore tests



Used worldwide since 1975, DMT (Dilatometric Marchetti Test) is one of the most precise tools for in situ testing to determine settling and estimate the elasticity module (E) of prospected soil layers. Quick and simple to perform and applicable to almost any kind of soil, the test is regulated bylo Eurocode 7 and ASTM D6635 – 01(2007) Standard Test Method for Performing the Flat Plate Dilatometer.


The DMT test consists in a stainless steel blade with a thin circular expandable pushed into the ground. At every 0,2m pressure is applied to inflate the membrane. Electrical sensors provide the measures “A” and “B”.


The dilatometer blade can be advanced using a conventional CPT pusher and being an “in-situ” test, can obtain measures at several places in the same site and in different depths.





The vane shear test is used to determine the undrained shear strenght of soft soils.


This test is standardized in Brazil by the ABNT NBR 10905/89  and in United States by ASTM D2573.


The test consists of pushing a cruciform vane mounted on a solid rod, inserted usually in a pre-drill. Reaching close to the desired depth, the vane is carefully pushed into the soil and is rotated whilst measuring rotation and torque


Besides the traditional Vane Test equipment in which the torque measures are made on the surface, Damasco Penna also offers the test performed with an equipment where the measures are made electronically close to the vane head, eliminating interference from the rods.





With the vane readings it is possible to obtain:

    • The torque x rotation graphico
    • Undrained shear strenght (Su)
    • Remolded shear strenght
    • Soil sensitivity




Vane Tester from duth manufacturer Ap Vd Berg





VANE - EXEMPLO 1 Example of test results



Developed in France in the 1950s by engineer Louis Ménard, the Ménard-type pressuremeter tests (PMT) consist of inserting a pressuremeter probe into a borehole and then applying nitrogen gas to deform a flexible membrane.
Deformation measurements are read by a control panel that measures pressure and volume variations occurring as a result of soil deformation.
A strain x strain curve of the prospected soil is obtained, providing the following information:

  • Ménard pressiometric module
  • Ménard limit pressure;
  • Residual pressure.

These results allow us to evaluate the following parameters through correlations:

  • Soil modulus (E);
  • Undrained resistance of saturated clayey soils (Su);
  • Drained resistance of sandy soils (ø);
  • Load capacity and rebounding in deep and shallow foundations




The tests are performed in accordance to ASTM D4719 –Standard Test Method for Prebored Pressuremeter Testing in Soils and Eurocode 7.

The SPT Soundings (SPT) are widely used in Brazil being the most common technique for site investigation in this country. The SPT tests allows a good initial site comprehension, indicating the water level, soil types and SPT resistance.
Our company can perform mechanical SPT soundings with drill rigs such as CME-550, CME-55 and Geoprobe 7822, all of them equipped with automated SPT hammer and hollow auger drilling capability.


Damasco Penna´s drill rigs can perform rotary drilling and coring drill for engineering and geo-environmental purposes.



Sounding report



Our company offer diverse possibilities regarding soil sampling. Depending on the kind of soil, depth, soil resistance and other variables.

Below we indicate some of the sampling techniques that can be performed. Please contact our team to know more about sampling possibilities.


Shelby samplings are commonly used to sample fine grained soil, especially very soft and soft clays, as estabilished by ASTM D1587 – 08 Standard Practice for Thin-Walled Tube Sampling of Soils for Geotechnical Purposes.

The method consists in mechanically drilling until the desired depth using "hollow stem augers" and internal rods that ensures the complete casing of the borehole prior to sampling. Once the desired depth is reached, the sampler is inserted statically., collecting the sample. Depending on the kind of soil, especially when grained a "piston sampler" can be used.



Piston Sampler detail




Denison Samplers are used to collect undisturbed samples in more resistant soils that would not be able to be collected using Shelby Samples.

The sample is made with a rotary drill rig and a set of tubes and casings.



Denison Sampler detail




This sampler was developed by  Damasco Penna aiming to collect semi-disturbed samples in compacted fills where tradicional sampling could not be applied.


The samples are collected with dinamic penetration of a metalic sampler with an internal PVC tube with 3" diameter . The samples can be used to diverse laboratory tests allowing diverse laboratory tests and understanting of the compaction degree of deep soil layers.



"Continuous cutting" sampler





The geotechnical instrumentation services aim monitoring and recording deformations, pressures and displacements of geotechnical works and infrastructure, through the installation of sensors, inclinometers, surface landmarks, piezometers, among others.


As Damasco Penna has its own drill rig fleet, we are able to install instruments in different types of terrain as well as specialized technicians in the reading and monitoring of instrumented sites.


We use GEOKON , a renowned North American manufacturer with over 40 years of manufacturing experience. sensors and instrumentation equipment. Consult our team for instrument information and reading automation.






The geo-environmental site investigations make it possible to determine the existence of contaminants in soil and groundwater. Damasco Penna provides services such as installation of monitoring wells, soil and water sampling for environmental purposes.
This type of service requires using clean and properly decontaminated tools and equipment, ensuring reliable sampling and avoiding cross-contamination.
We provide our clients with a drill rig fleet able to install monitoring and remediation wells with more than 100m depth in soil and rock, as well as soil and water sampling by the "direct push" method in different types of sites and diverse geological formations.
Geo-environmental site investigation with the Geoprobe 6625CPT


Soil sampling acrylic liners




Damasco Penna counts on diverse soil laboratory equipment and teams, being able to perform in-situ soil characterization as well as laboratory soil characterization.


Our equipment has a rigorous schedule of maintenance and calibrations and our teams are able to perform tests such as:


    • Water content
    • Bulk density
    • Liquid limit anda plastic limit
    • Grain size analysis (sieve analysis and sedimentation annalysis)
    • Specific gravity of soil particles
    • Standard Proctor compaction
    • Modified Proctor compaction
    • California Bearing Ratio


Controle de compactação de aterros com ensaios Hilf:


Geotechnical Consulting

With over 5.000 geotechnical projects, Damasco Penna provides geotechnical consultancy for diverse projects such as foundations, earthworks, retaining walls and other for diverse industry sectors


Our equipments


Health and Safety

Protecting our workforce and general public is our main value and a routine in all our activities.



Piezocone Tests (CPTU)
Direct Push soil sampling
Lugeon Tests
Marchetti Dilatometric Tests (DMT)
SPT Sounding (automatic drop hammer)
Rock Coring / SPT Soundings





Alameda Rio Negro, 1105 – 1º andar – cj. 11
Alphaville – SP – Brasil
Phone: +55 11 4195-8385 damasco@damascopenna.com.br